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What is Beer?

Beer is any alcoholic drink made from 4 simple ingredients: Pure Water, Malted Barley, Hop Flowers and Yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars in beer to produce ethanol alcohol and carbon dioxide. Beer can contain many flavors, aromas and colors, ranging from light to dark. It can also have different degrees of alcohol by volume.

The process of making beer starts with milling or crushing the grain kernels (often barley, but sometimes wheat, rye or corn). The crushed grains are then mixed with hot water inside a brewing vessel called a mash tun, which activates the enzymes that convert the starches into sugars and dextrins. The resulting liquid is called wort. After mashing, the wort is cooled and filtered to remove any solids that might spoil the final product. The filtered wort is then ready to add the hops that give beer its flavor and bitterness.

There are three main ways to make beer: all-extract brewing, partial mash brewing and all-grain brewing. All of them involve heating the grain with very hot water and adding the hops to create a beer. The difference lies in how the brewers treat the first stage of brewing, which is called mashing and boiling.

The mashing process simulates grain germination and converts the starches into fermentable sugars that the yeast will consume to make ethanol and CO2. This is followed by a high temperature boiling to eliminate any remaining enzymes and stabilize the wort before the addition of the hops. During the boiling, brewers can also add other flavor compounds to the wort such as esters and farnesene, which are produced by the interaction of organic acids with alcohols during fermentation.

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